Imagine  that you are a teacher, and you have 200 hundred students data 
to be stored off course you have might be having an excel sheet and you 
would be using Ctrl+F to retrieve the individual data. What if someone asks you to get the data of those students whose marks are greater than 80. You are stranded here, right! Here is how SQL can help you.
SQL is a Structured Query Language that can help you to store, retrieve 
data in a relation database. In an RDBMS data is stored in the form of the table. Each table might be having some fields. Here in the below table, youhave the following Domain's ID, NAME, PHONE, CITY.
Each row in an RDBMS is called as a Tuple, the table is called as a Record. 

SQL is very easy to learn and we have the  SQL commands classified into 
different according to their nature.
DDL - Data Definition Language
  • CREATE - Creates a new table, a view of a table, or other object in   database
  • ALTER - Modifies an existing database object, such as a table.
  • DROP -Deletes an entire table, a view of a table or other object in   the database.
DML - Data Manipulation Language
  • SELECT- Retrieves certain records from one or more tables.
  • INSERT- Creates a record
  • UPDATE - Changes a record.
  • DELETE - Delete's a record.
  1. Create Database:
     syntax:     CREATE DATABASE DatabaseName;

     Eg:         CREATE DATABSE Shoppingcart;

 2. Create a Table: 
     syntax:     CREATE TABLE table_name(column1 datatype,                                                          column2 datatype,                                                          column3 datatype,                                                          columnN datatype,                                                          PRIMARY KEY( one or more columns);
3. Insert records into table:
    syntax: INSERT INTO TABLE_NAME (column1, 
            VALUES (value1, value2, value3,...valueN);

            VALUES (1, 'Ramesh', 32, 'Ahmedabad', 2000.00 );

4. Where Clause : Giving a condition and finding
   syntax:  SELECT column1, column2, columnN 
             FROM table_name
             WHERE [condition]

             FROM CUSTOMERS
             WHERE SALARY > 2000;

5. And Clause : 
   syntax:   SELECT column1, column2, columnN 
             FROM table_name
             WHERE [condition1] AND [condition2]...AND [conditionN];
             FROM CUSTOMERS
             WHERE SALARY > 2000 AND age < 25;

6. Select Query : Helps you to select some specific details
   syntax:  SELECT column1, column2, columnN FROM table_name;

7. Drop Table: Deletes a table
   syntax:  DROP TABLE table_name;

   Eg :     DROP TABLE table1;

There are still more commands where you csn dig deeper and go more. But 
these are only a few that can help you to do a small project of you want.




Every time I hear her name I get goosebumps. If I wish to be someone it would be her.

Neeraja was born on 7rd September 1963, she was the youngest daughter of her family, the ladoo of her family. She has started her career in modelling, later which she had to stop after getting married, she then got a divorce from her husband and started her career as an Air hostess in Pan-Am. She always loved her job no matter how it was.

The day when the Pan-Am flight took off from Bombay to Frankfurt via Karachi had no issues till it landed in Karachi. Soon after the flight landed in Karachi and the passengers deported there occurred a series of shooting followed by the hijacking of flight. I am still not sure whether the attacked happened on air or at Karachi Airport. Well in the movie the attack happened at Karachi Airport.

Being put into a situation where the life of 379 passengers are your responsibility, she took it with all heart and did her duty wonderfully. For her, the passengers and her crew were the first priority. At each moment when she fell down, the support of her beautiful family which helped her move forward, with which anyone can succeed. She was a braveheart as her dad said. She could keep her emotions controlled and do her duty very well. She has stayed with her team and helped them out in each situation. She waited for an opportunity and she ran to open the main door and she managed to get 359 people out of the flight. Even when her co-staffs got out pulling her down with her went into the flight to rescue the other passengers. At her last moment, as she was rescuing three young kids and got herself in front of a hijacker. She turned around holding the children to her closely, with each bullet striking her back. She died having saved three children, and bearing three bullets in her body. Tear’s roll down when I start describing her. This reminds of her dialogue “ I HATE TEARS!”.

To sacrifice yourself for helping others, to stand against injustice, to full-fill your duty with all loyalty, justice to everyone out there, she is the women who I aspire to be!

This is an immediate blog post after watching the movie Neeraja.

My salute to India’s youngest Ashoka Chakra Winner -Neeraja Bhanot!

From bash to zsh

Are you new to Linux and do you wanna make your terminal look cool, then my first option would be to migrate your shell from bash to zsh.
A shell is a command-line interface that allows the user to interact with the computer's operating system. We interact with the system using a Shell Prompt or a command Prompt. The shell reads your input as you press enter and displays the output. If you are using  Ubuntu then you are using Terminal as your command prompt.
There are mainly two major shell types :
  1. Bourne Again  Shell
  2. C Shell
Bash refers to the same Bourne Again shell, which is the default shell of Linux terminal. Zsh is a more advanced version of bash with more features to it. It's versatile and comapct nature makes it's more prominent.

Migrating from Bash to Zsh

1. Check which shell you are using 

Are you  not aware of the shell that you are using, then here is a simple 
command to check it.

$ps -p $$

2. Install zsh

$sudo apt-get update
$sudo apt-get install zsh

If you want to know where your zsh is installed then check using 

$where zsh

3. Set as default shell

$chsh -s /bin/zsh

Once you have set zsh to be defaut then if you need to migrate from zsh to bash then you can simply use the command

$exec bash

4. Installing Oh-My-Zsh

Oh-My-Zsh is a community driven Framework configuration for zsh. To installOh-My-Zsh use the below command:

$curl -L http://install.ohmyz.sh |sh

5. Change your themes

I feel so bored using one theme for months, well this is one cool feature 
which I really like in zsh. You get the different themes here.

$ls ~/.oh-my-zsh/themes/ | grep 'theme name'

Have fun changing your themes and customising your terminal!

Adding Gender Support

There are certain bugs which are based on adding gender support for particular messages. Like for example take the case of this certain bug T111944 . This bug is on adding gender support for a particular message. So here are some few tips to how to analyse and do a gender bug.

In a mediawiki code specially in i18n messages, we can see a lot of $1,  $2, $3 parameters. They are basically like parameters, but not exactly parameters. For example: When we go through i18n messages we can find out some messages like “You have been added by $1” , here $1 can be a person.  And we can apply gender for these parameters depending on the user.

Applying  gender was bit confusing for me, and I am gonna show how I have did this particular bug. As the bug say’s we have two parameters $1 and $2 where the$1 refer to the username of the sender and $2 refers to the username of the recipient. We have to apply gender support for these to parameters.Lets see for example a gender support statement: {{GENDER: $1|mentioned}} .  In this statement we are applying gender support for the term mentioned. You might basically have a doubt that as we use English language we do not need gender support, but since we are internalizing we are running this same message in different languages and it can change according to gender of the person.  As we look into the syntax we have:

  1. Its compulsory to enclose GENDER in {{}}
  2. The word Gender  is case sensitive, its can only be in upper case
  3. {{GENDER:parameter|his|her|their}}
  4. It is necessary to apply Gender with proper grammar

Now for our particular issue here on applying gender to $1 we can see {{GENDER:$1|sent}} , here this means in simple if $1 is female,  she sent and if $1 is male, he sent.  But now on going to $2 we have the message saying that $2 has received a mail from $2 so basically we have to write the code accordingly.  So the code goes in as {{GENDER:$1|$2}.  So the final change in the bug would be shown in this link.

This was a very simple bug in mediawiki, but as to say the concept of adding gender support is simple. There are lot of GENDER bugs available in mediawiki that can be assigned and done.

My Incredible India

India , the most oldest nation in the world, the most wealthiest nation, the most knowledgeable nation which had the most intelligent people and the best universities in the world. Well this is how I would like to say my nation to all those who ask me from which country are you from. But now the situation has turned like “Oh! I am Indian who is struggling to transform my life from Maruti to Mercedes, by working in the most corrupt sectors.” What should I call this? The inability of the leaders in my nation, or  is it Imperialism in ones own country? I have no intention of giving an answer for this, instead I would rather talk on how thought about my nation changed to my incredible India.

I am an engineering student, passed all my exams in my school mugging up most of things  which the NCERT textbooks said, not knowing about any facts. Literally to say I studied French revolution, the British imperialism on India, rather than studying about India. These textbooks gave me not even a tinge of knowledge  about India. What benefit do I get learning about some other countries history without knowing my countries history. Well all these thoughts only came to me only when I came to know more about Indian History. Like you all Indians out there who think yourself’s to be imprisoned in your own nation just because west has a luxurious life, I had the same thoughts. Graduate from some college, find a job in USA/UK/Middle-East and settle there. This is a normal Indian thought. But this was my notion, which changed when began changing when I joined Amrita .

I was introduced to a course called as Cultural Education, from which I learned a lot about India contributions to the world. Most of the times I get goosebumps hearing India’s contribution to the world. I felt proud for being born in such a nation.

Bha-ra-tha is a the nation in between the Himalayas and the Indian Ocean. A vast country with variety of culture, with the most richest temples, with 33 million gods, the most intelligent people, the best universities and the mother which gave birth to many brave men and women. This is a country to which the Europeans longed to come, they came looted us and went. The country we has  patience and tolerance. Our country is like a forest united from the deepest roots with everything which is fine together. I call India as a forest because, just look at our self’s, we have many religions, many cultures, many gods, many languages, many types of cuisines,but still we are all fine together and we live happily. But consider other nations , they have all things same, one language, one god, one type of customs rituals and so on. I would prefer calling India as a forest and the others to be manicured gardens. Those gardens won’t exist until the right proteins, nutrition are given. When Britisher’s came to India, it was so difficult for them to find out how to conquer our nation. Like every person has some pressure point, even every nation has pressure points. But they couldn’t find it out, but tried to manage by looting and destructing our land and sowing their weeds here in our land.

Indian contribution to the world was enormous. Even the modern findings that go on here in the world where already predicted by sages in India. Here let me tell you how a new generation Indian thinks. In a talk with Sadguru, a journalist said him “ some UK university has proved that the vibration produced by sun is equivalent to the vibrations produced when we chant the word AUM” . Sadguru replied, ” What sense does it make? Our sages have been telling this for 10000 years and you are not believing, but you believe only when west said“. This is the new-gen , accept only what west says. But the most ironical thing, where did the people from west find this? They found it from us and researched on it . Still the source is same, what difference does it make? The same was my thought about my nation but two years back but not now. People in India have mastered the science of our body, mind, intellect. They have got answers to many unanswerable questions which still people are researching on.

Bha-ra-thian’s have contributed a lot to the different fields of science. India’s greatest contribution to the world is field of mathematics is “Zero” by one of the greatest mathematicians of all time – Aryabhatta . It can also be called as pujayam or shunyam. Each word depicts its characters. Algebra, trigonometry and calculus came from India. Budhayana explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem today. He discovered this in the 6th century, which was long before the European mathematician, Pythagoras was born. Bhaskaracharya rightly calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. His calculations was – Time taken by earth to orbit the sun: (5th century) 365.258756484 days. To the field of chemistry we have contributed with the discovery of the smallest particle “atom ” by the ancient chemist Kanda. Sushruta is the father of surgery. 2600 years ago he and health scientists of his time conducted complicated surgeries like cesareans, cataract, artificial limbs, fractures, urinary stones and even plastic surgery and brain surgery. Usage of anesthesia was well known in ancient India. Over 125 surgical equipment were used. Deep knowledge of anatomy, physiology, etiology, embryology, digestion, metabolism, genetics and immunity is also found in many texts. The World’s first university was established in Takshila in 700BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century BC was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education. TO the field of chemistry we have one of the marvelous sculptures “Iron pillar” which hasn’t rusted in all these years. The Arthashaatsra written by Kauitlya is an exceptional book handbook on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy written in Sanskrit. The Ashtadhayi is a great work by Panini to the field of grammar. This book can show the brilliance of Bha-ra-thians. India is also the home of for thr best architectural designs. The temples in India can show the skill of the Indian architectures. Who could possibly build something beautiful like the Sun Temple in Konark, the Padmanbha Swami temple in Thiruvanathapuram. Even the modern building lack its resistance to earth quakes while all those old buildings out there which still stand unaffected. The Kung fu which we hear from China itself was taught by an Indian named Bodhidharma. Sanskrit itself is one of the greatest contribution of India to the world. Sanskrit is a scientific language which would be considered as the perfect language for AI. India has a wide variety of contributions to the field of music and dance. The Nataraja statue of Shiva itself is depicts the beauty of dance.

Are you on a quest to make your life happy? If so then don’t waste your time going behind some philosophical text books written by people , but I can suggest you a wonderful textbook. The Bhagavad Gita by Lord Sri Krishna. You could never find a book which tells you how to live your life at each situation and you would get this only in India.  Not just Gita , The Vedas, The Upanishads are all examples of Indian text books that open to a new world of living your life.

Spirituality and mystical charm have always drawn people from all over the world to India. As the world becomes increasingly capitalistic and materialist, the quest and urgency for spirituality grows more and more. The traditional Indian way of life has helped in the evolution and growth of Spiritualism. Numerous cultures and religions have thrived and flourished together for ages and resulted into the unique Indian way of life.  Indian spirituality is all about showing respect to all living beings-animals trees, rocks and even water and lead a positive and healthy life. It is believed that the supreme Creator has put each one of us in this world for a purpose and that purpose is to be compassionate, caring and loving to one-another. The great Indian spiritual personalities and gurus have played an important role in spreading the message of love, care and the need for positive living all over the world.

The above would be a brief description of India’s contribution to the world but we still have lot more. There is something more interesting than this. What if you come to know that the great minds of world had borrowed inspiration form India. You all know the greatest  minds of all time – Albert Einstein and this is what he told about Bhagavad Gita “I have made the Bhagwad-Gita as the main source of my inspiration and guide for the purpose of scientific investigations and formation of my theories. Ralph Waldo Emerson said this about the Bhagavad Gita: “I owed a magnificent day to the Bhagavad-Gita. It was as if an empire spoke to us, nothing small or unworthy, but large, serene, consistent,the voice of an old intelligence which in another age and climate had pondered and thus disposed of the same questions which exercise us”, Sunita Williams, an American astronaut who holds the record for longest single space flight by a woman carried a copy of Bhagavad Gita and Upanishads with her to space, said “Those are spiritual things to reflect upon yourself,life, world around you and  see things other way, I thought it was quite appropriate” while talking about her time in space.”  The count doesn’t stop here it goes on with more and more people like Hermann Hesse, Henry David Thoreau,  Robert Oppenheimer, Nikola Tesla…


As I have said earlier the mind of Indians to accept the things which are only modernized by the west is one factor which I see to be pulling back our country badly. Yoga was introduced in India, but Indians found it difficult to accept until now, the west had modified yoga to something else and Indians find it very interesting. Have you heard of Yoga Dance ? Well there is even a competition for that mostly in US/UK. Ayurveda – the art of living, which is a complete Indian Product. Two westerners came to India and they were introduced to a Ayurvedic Spa by one of their Indian friend. Later the westerners left India and they started a Spa their in the name of  “Aveda“. They could find increase in customer rates and then they expanded it to India. In India they could find lot of people approaching them. So what exactly was Aveda to have such a profit? The truth was when they left from India they took some Ayurvedic medicinal herbs with them , then they modified it and formed Aveda, which means Aveda is Ayurveda itself. But the number of Indians who bought it was high. How ironical ?

Few days back I was in ashram for Amma’s dharshan and I met a foreigner. He was from UK. I found it very interesting to talk with him. He was giving me suggestions to read the Indian books. I felt sort of shamefull . A foreigner asking me to read Indian books!!! Well that is how our nation is like. Some people of our nation don’t need anything from here but there are lot of people from other nation who come and live here and work for our nation.

These ideas make me proud to be in a nation with such wonderful culture and tradition. This would be the reason why I call my nation “my incredible India”.

Well I think its necessary to fill the Indian schools with  textbooks that teaches them on Bha-ra-tha more than French revolution or Invasion of others on our nation. Teach students about their country so they don’t feel like ending up in a prison. So that everyone of us can finally say “Incredible India.”

Command Line Arguments

Just the way you have a command Prompt in Windows likewise here in Linux we use the terminal to do different instructions.

Command shell is a program that interprets the commands and allows to execute the command by typing them directly to the terminal. Sometimes throughout the lecture you might come across the term BASH. BASH = Bourne Again Shell. Bash is basically a shell written in free replacement to the standard Bourne Shell. It has all the features of Bourne shell with some extra added features to make it easier to program with and use of command line.

If you are a windows user you are to have a doubt on how the BASH would be differing from the windows command prompt.

In Linux it is different in typing EXIT and exit. So BASH is case sensitive. In DOS the ‘/’ is a command argument delimiter while the ‘\’ is a directory separator while in Linux ‘/’ is a directory separator while the ‘\’ is an escape sequence. There is no thing as file extension in Linux while in DOS we can see “eight dot three” which actually refers to the file name convention.


Most common commands are located in your shells path, you simply have to type the name of the program to execute it. Your shells path may include the most common location like /bin, /usr/bin etc. To execute command that are not in your path you will have to give the complete path like “ /home/harry/myprogram/”.


Commands can be run by themselfs, or you can pass additional arguments to make them do different things. A typical command syntax looks like : command [-argument] [-argument] [–argument] [file]



  • mkdir : To create a new directory.

~ git:(master) ✗ mkdir new

  • cd : To change the directory.

➜ ~ git:(master) ✗ cd new

  • pwd : To find the ”present working directory”.

➜ new git:(master) ✗ pwd

  • cd .. : To move to last directory to which you were working.

➜ new git:(master) ✗ cd ..
➜ ~ git:(master) ✗

  • cd ~ : To get back to the home directory
  • ls : To list the file in the current working directory
  • ls directory_name : To get the list of files in the particular directory
  • ls -a : To list the hidden file



Piping Characters together

Since we have lot of utilities in Linux so it is Basic philosophy to combine all those utilities and to get useful command sequence. The pipe character ‘|’ is used to chain two more commands together. The output of the first command is piped into the second.

           $ls -la /usr/bin | less


In this we first run the command “ls -al /usr/bin” which gives you a long list of files in /usr/bin. Because the output of this command is typically very long we piped the output program called as “less” which displays the output for us one screen at a time.


  • su : allows you to switch user. Switch to the root account.
  • su harry : Switches to harry’s account.
  • su – :Switch to root and log in with root environment.
  • passwd: Update users authentication Tokens.
  • who : To show who is logged in



  • file : to find out what kind of file it is.
  • cat : Display the contents of the file on the screen.
  • head : Display few lines of a text file.
  • tail: Display few lines of text file.
  • sort : sort the lines of a text.
  • cp : Copy contents from one file to another
  • mv :  Rename the file
  • rm : Delete a file
  • rmdir : Delete a directoryScreenshot from 2015-12-30 20:03:02



  • which : Shows the full path of a command
  • whereis : Locates the program, source code and manual page for command.
  • locate: A quick way to search for files anywhere on the file system.
  • find : used to search for files matching certain types. A very powerful command but sometimes very tricky.


  • clear : Clear the screen
  • echo : Display text on to the screen
  • more : Display a file, or a program output one page at a time.
  • grep : Search for a pattern in a file or a program output.
  • history : Prints the recently used commands


  • reboot : Reboot the system
  • poweroff : Poweroff the system

These are only some basic command in Linux and you have even more commands. Its not necessary to by heart any commands you simply have to google them if you need it. You can easily do all the actions with the keyboard.


Penguins are one of a kind, who adapts to the changing conditions. Even if we put them in some place like a zoo they do adapt to it. They  can get friendly with us. No better creature stands for being the mascot of Linux. Linux was introduced for the users to have more free access to its kernel.

Its a Free and Open Source Software developed by Linus Torvalds released on 5th October 1991. He started by writing the kernel  “the heart of the Operating System” and gave it to public and asked to fix it. Today there are thousands of people who contribute to this.

Linux was basically developed for personal computers which are now used even in Android Phones. Its one of the leading Operating systems not just of its use in Android Phones, its used in mainframe and super computers too. Being an open source software it is easy for us to get its code modify it and use it the way we like. Just think that’s how you are able to updates your android versions when you don’t get software updates. We get Linux in the form of packages called as Linux distributors. Some of the common distributors are Debian, Ubuntu, Fedora etc.

Linux is Unix like operating system with a monolithic kernel, the Linux Kernel which handles process controls networking,  access to peripherals and file systems. Understanding the Linux Kernel can an allow the operating system (OS) to be modified to include support for the features you want. Below listed are some features of Linux.


  • Multiple user accounts available on a Linux system,  with multiple users logged in at same time .
  • Freedom to arrange their environment in the way they want.Users own home directory for storing files and their own desktop interface (with icons, menus, and applications arranged to suit them).
  • Security of Data and all the files in it with password protection
  • Multitasking in Linux means not just some programs going with our awareness but that the Linux operating system can itself have programs running in the background. Many of these system processes make it possible for Linux to work as a server, with these background processes listening to the network for requests to log in to your system, view a Web page, print a document, or copy a file. These background processes are referred to as daemons.
  • Having a powerful  X- Windows Interface which handles the functions of opening X-based graphical user interface (GUI) applications and displaying them on an X server process. The user interface is also called as a shell or Command Line Interface.
  • With a wide range of  networking services to the client computers on the LAN or to the entire Internet is what Linux does best. A variety of software packages are available that enable you to use Linux as a print server, file server, FTP server, mail server, Web server, news server, or workgroup (DHCP or NIS) server.

Linux is one of the best and most commonly used OS in many fields such as education , space research, Gaming, Android Phones and many more.  So its obvious to wonder what makes Linux to be used this much.

When compared to different commercially available operating systems, Linux’s best assets are its price, its reliability, and the freedom it gives you. With the latest 2.6 Linux kernel, you can also argue that scalability is one of its greatest advantages. Although commercial operating systems tend to encourage upgrading to later hardware, Linux doesn’t require that .In terms of reliability, the general consensus is that Linux is comparable to many commercial UNIX systems but more reliable than most desktop-oriented operating systems. This is especially true if you rely on your computer system to stay up because it is a Web server or a file server. (You don’t have to reboot every time you change something.)

Because you can get the source code, you are free to change any part of the Linux system, along with any open source software that comes with it, in any way that you choose. Unlike many self-contained commercial products, open source software tends to be built in pieces that are meant to interact with other pieces, so you are free to mix and match components to suit your tastes. Linux is a culture that encourages interoperability. For example, if you don’t like a window manager, you can plug in a different one because so many were built to operate within the same framework.

Another advantage of using Linux is that help is always available on the Internet. There is probably someone out there in a Linux newsgroup or mailing list willing to help you get around your problem. Because the source code is available, if you need something fixed you can even patch the code yourself! The culture of Linux is one that thrives on people helping other people.




Android – Part I

What is Android?

Android is an mobile operating system. It was developed by Google. It was developed for touch screen mobile phones basically for smart phones. Since Android is open source, we can modify the code and we can bring it u in new forms. Right now this has lead to “SmartPhone wars” between technology companies.

Android Inc. was founded by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears. In July 2005 Android Inc. was formed,and formed a platform for the production of a flexible and upgrading system led by Rubin. On November 5,2007  Android was unveiled as its first product, a mobile device platform built on Linux Kernel Version 2.6.25. HTC Dream was the first commercially available smart phone with Android running.

Android applications are written in Java programming language. Android applications are composed of one or more application components. Here are around 200000 applications developed for android with over 3 billion+ downloads. Android relies on Linux version 2.6 for core system services such as security, memory management, process management, network stack, and driver model. These applications make life more comfortable and advanced for the users. Hardwares that support Android are mainly based on ARM architecture platform.

Features of Android

The following are the list of features in Android

    1. Messaging :

SMS and MMS messaging features are available in Android devices along with Google cloud devices.

    2. Web Browser:

                 Android has  Google chrome as the default browser. Android has it’s web browser based on Open source WebKit engine.

   3. Voice Based Features:

               Google search through voice features have been enabled since the beginning of Android. It was implemented from Android 2.2. Voice  actions for texting, browsing, Navigation are all available in Android.

   4. Multi Touch

              Android has multi touch facilities for phone like HTC Hero. Google has released updates for Nexus One and Motorola Droid which allows multi touch natively.

   5. No Touch

              Using Android apps such as Wave Control, users can control their phones touch-free, using only gestures. Have messy hands but need to turn off your screen or change a song? Simple. This could prove especially useful if you’re driving, so you can keep both eyes on the road.

   6. Infrared Transimission

             The Android operating system supports a built-in infrared transmitter, allowing you to use your phone or tablet as a remote control.

   7. Alternate Keyboards

           Android supports multiple keyboards and makes them easy to install; the SwiftKey, Skype, and 8pen apps all offer ways to quickly change up your keyboard style. Other mobile operating systems either don’t permit extra keyboards at all, or the process to install and use them are tedious and time-consuming.

  8. Custom ROM’s

             This is a big one. Because the Android operating system is open source, developers can tweak the current OS and build their own versions, which users can download and install in place of the stock OS. Some are filled with features, while others change the look and feel of a device. Chances are if there’s a feature you want, someone has already built a custom ROM for it.

  9. Widgets

               Apps are versatile, but sometimes you want information at a glance instead of having to open an app and wait for it to load. Android widgets let you display just about any feature you choose, right on the home screen—including weather apps, music widgets, or productivity tools that helpfully remind you of upcoming meetings or approaching deadlines.

  10. Near Field Communication

             Most Android devices support NFC, which allows electronic devices to easily interact across short distances. The main aim here is to create a payment option that is simpler than carrying credit cards or cash, and while the market hasn’t exploded as many experts had predicted, there may be an alternative in the works, in the form of Bluethooth Low Energy (BLE).

Android Version

The Android Versions started with the release of Android Beta. The most recent version of Android is  Lollipop that is released in November 3, 2014. Android versions are developed under confectionery theme names named in alphabetical order. Cupcake(1.5), Donut(1.6), Eclair(2.0-2.1), Froyo(2.2–2.2.3),  GingerBread(2.3–2.3.7), Honeycomb(3.0–3.2.6), Ice cream Sandwich(4.0–4.0.4), Jelly Bean(4.1–4.3.1), KitKat(4.4–4.4.4, 4.4W–4.4W.2), Lollipop(5.0–5.1.1) .The  next version to be out would be Marshmallow.

New versions keep on releasing and we keep on updating our phones to the latest versions checking on it trends

Updating Your Android Version

First of all check whether your Android system is up-to-date:

  1. Open system settings in your phone.
  2. Go to About Phone then keep clicking on Android version
  3. A screen comes in with the basic wallpaper of your android application.

You will now have to go for updating the version only if your android version is not the latest.

There are two ways you can update :

  1. You can go to the Software Update center in your phone and check for latest updates. If you have updates then you will get notifications to update.
  2. If you couldn’t find any updates then you can root your phone and update your android version and make your phone more customized.

Check on my next blog post to how to root your phone.

Contributing to Open Source

Google Code In, Google Summer of Code, Outreachy are all some platforms where you can prove you are good contributor to an open source organisations. Most of us trouble getting started with our first contribution to Open Source. Some of us might be lucky to find a mentor who can help us along the way. Here are few steps to get started with Open Source contribution which helped me a lot.

1. PC/Laptop with an Open Source OS(Linux/KDE/Debian).
2. Basic knowledge in git would help you well.
3. Enthusiasm to keep working 🙂

First and foremost thing to do is to select an organisation to work for. If you plan to so Gsoc or Outreachy then I would prefer you to select some organisation with a minimum of 6 slots. You can also check in with the languages the organisation uses and all. If you have got no idea about the Open Source organisations then here are a few of my suggestions. Wikimedia, KDE(Kool Dekstop Environment), Fedora, Drupal, Firefox, Django are few I cant list. But there are many more, which you can simply google on.

Once you have selected an organisation to work with, the next step I would suggest is to join the particular IRC channels of the organisation.  This can help you a lot. If you have doubts you can en-quire about it in the IRC channel. Once you have done this you can step forward to setup the required desktop environment . One who has decided to do the process towards contribution by himself would have some troubles. But the best part is you will learn a lot, which can help you. Sometimes the setup of the desktop environment can take some weeks of time. Keep your enthusiasm up and you can finish it smooth.

After setting up the desktop environment you will have to find out the bug tracker for your specific organisation. For instance mediawiki has bug tracker as Phabricator where tasks are put up. Once you select a bug to work with you will need to assign the bug to yourself. If you don’t assign a bug, and you start working with it, after someone else submit a patch for that bug, then you are doomed!!! Few tips while to select you bug if you are a complete beginner :
1. Select a easy bug.
2. You can select something related to documentation or so, this would help you get some confidence and later you can move on to bigger tasks.
After you make a change you will have to locally test whether your change is working. Only after locally testing you should submit your patch. A Patch simply means a change you made to the existing code. You will have to push the patch for reviewing. Once you have succeed in all test you patch will get merged to the main core.

Once your patch get merged to can select another bug and keep on working. Well if you plan to work for Google Summer of Code/ Outreachy then having a good commit history is a point.

There is nothing more pleasurable than an merged patch you got fixed with all your patience and hard work.

Working With Git and Github

Why do we need git?
Imagine you are a photographer and you just went to some awesome awesome place like Jammu and caught some pics in your dslr. You saved all your photos on your computer in a folder named “Jammu”. You have made some edits in the pics and prepared them ready for a magazine work. On that evening your son suddenly gets your pc to play a game and crashes your pc.

OMG!!! Your whole data for the magazine is gone! What to do next? Here is when git is going to help you!

How can git help you?

Git is a version control system developed by Linus Torvalds. In simple ways git helps in creating a backup of whatever changes you have made in a file. So that even if you lose it you still have a chance to get it back.

Getting started with Git

1. Install git in your system.

 $sudo apt-get install git

$password for sudo:

2. Telling git who you are

$git config –global user.name “username”

 $git config –global user.email “useremailid”

3. Now open http://www.github.com and create an account .This is the platform where you actually can see your all changed files.  If you dont get it just think github to be like facebook with no messenger. It helps to update your works by pushing all your changes into a repository(Folder) you create just like you update your status in facebook.

4. Generation of ssh key.

Type the above command in the generation of ssh key in your terminal. The below command line generates a new ssh key.

 $ ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -C “your_email@example.com”

We strongly suggest keeping the default settings as they are, so when you’re prompted to “Enter a file in which to save the key”, just press Enter to

Enter file in which to save the key (/Users/you/.ssh/id_rsa): [Press enter]

You’ll be asked to enter a passphrase

Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): [Type a passphrase]
Enter same passphrase again: [Type passphrase again]

After you enter a passphrase, you’ll be given the fingerprint, or id, of your SSH key. It will look something like this

Your identification has been saved in /Users/you/.ssh/id_rsa.
# Your public key has been saved in /Users/you/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
# The key fingerprint is:
# 01:0f:f4:3b:ca:85:d6:17:a1:7d:f0:68:9d:f0:a2:db your_email@example.com

5. Type the below command to get the ssh key and copy it .

$ gedit  id_rsa.pub (Opens a gedit file with your ssh key)

6. Adding ssh key to your github account.
Login to http://www.github.com make an account.
Go to settings.(Top left on click  your profile icon). Select ssh key and add the key.

7. You can test your connection is right by doing the below commands

$ssh key -T git@github.com

Hi username! You’ve successfully authenticated, but GitHub does not
 provide shell access.
If the above line appears then you can make sure your connection is successful.


1. Open your terminal and create a new directory.

    $mkdir test

2. Now create a new file in it. Let my file name be index.html and let it contain a basic html page.

$touch index.html

3. Initiate the git repository using the following command.

$git init

4. Add the index.html file to the git repo

$git add index.html

Since my folder only contains index.html even I can type ” $git add   . “

5. Commit your changes

Commit is a word you often come across on working with git. It basically means the changes you have done.

$git commit -m “index.html file added” // the message inside the ” ” indicates the present changes you made.

6. Pushing to git

After you commit your changes its time you push them to your github. For that you can go to the new repo you created for pushing your file into github. Here I have created a repo named gitwork. Once your done creating a repo you can see the below page

Then add the two commands higlighted in the screenshot below


Once your are done you can refresh your github repo and see your file being added with the particular commit message.

Finally you are done adding a file to github.